By Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour
A definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. 6: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades
1996; Pinto-Correia and Vos 2004; Blondel 2006). These interwoven semi-natural and cultivated landscapes have been the cradle of man’s relationship with nature for thousands of years and are real biodiversity hotspots due to their exceptional number of endemic and cultivated species. g. Olmo 1995; Terral 2000), are those which Braudel (1986) deﬁned as the “trinity born from the union between climate and history”— however, in general, there is a great diversity of crops which has determined the area’s food security and ecological stability over the centuries (Loumou and Giourga 2003).
1 35 Approaching a Polycultural Mediterranean Garden Deﬁnition A First Description of the Complex Mediterranean Rural Landscape: The “Tavola Di Halaesa” Emilio Sereni’s “History of the Italian Agricultural Landscape” (1961, trans. Litchﬁeld 1997) is quite helpful in the search to identify a more comprehensive deﬁnition of the polycultural Mediterranean garden landscape that includes all of the different historical interpretations that it has gone through. This author attributes the characteristics of the traditional Mediterranean rural tree landscape to the landscape of the “Mediterranean garden”, and shows how those characteristics are maintained all the way through time—from the Greek colonization to the post-war agriculture following WWII—remaining well-deﬁned and long-lasting with regard to their formal structure and functional biotic and abiotic elements, their ecological and geographical context, their plurality of functions, their social uses and economic determinants (Sereni 1961).
Along with the multifunctional and environmental production, these spaces also have a cultural production shown by indirect literary references (Theocritus, cf. ) (Scazzosi 2004; Moreira et al. 2006; Cullotta and Barbera 2011; Otero et al. 2013) and the appeal that is characteristic of polycultural Mediterranean agricultural systems. 6 Conclusions The long-lasting, complex- and mixed forms of agro-forestry systems and landscapes, such as the polyculture (coltura promiscua), is ascribable and can be associated with different and innumerable agricultural land uses and different kinds of landscape conﬁgurations.