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By John A. Hawkins

During this significant new e-book, John A. Hawkins provides a brand new idea of linear ordering in syntax. He argues that processing provides an easy, useful cause of syntactic ideas of ordering, in addition to for the choice between ordering editions in languages and buildings within which version is feasible. Insights from generative syntax, typological reports of language universals, and psycholinguistic stories of language processing are mixed to teach that there's a profound correspondence among functionality and grammar.

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Whether a language will employ raising rules or WH-movement within its syntax, whether it will assign a productive set of non-agentive 9-roles to grammatical subjects, or whether How is a processing principle expressed in a grammar? 23 it will have a rich morphological case system. In some additional publications (Hawkins 1992b, 1994) I give a processing motivation for the presence versus absence of these kinds of grammatical properties in languages with different basic verb positions. In all of these examples it is important to view the processing contribution to grammars within the context of the general theory of language universals outlined in ch.

Persian is an example (cf. e. The woman knows that the man threw a rock. Further examples of this type are German, Yaqui and Turkish (cf. Dryer 1980). But in Japanese, the tradition of grammatical research states that such sentences are grammatical (cf. Kuno 1973b, Dryer 1980), and they do occur in performance, albeit with a frequency that declines as the length of the center embedding increases. This same performance regularity can be seen with other center-embedded phrases as well: center-embedded NPs and PPs of increasing length are increasingly dispreferred, but still grammatical (cf.

This assumption will need to be revised if the independently motivated format of grammatical descriptions can come up with no plausible way of formulating the constraint, principle or rule in question, but in the present instance this is not the case. When we take a comparative linguistic perspective and look beyond the English-only data of Chomsky (1965), the assumption of pure acceptability becomes quite untenable. For if we assume (along with Frazier 1979a, 1985; Frazier and Rayner 1988; Inoue and Fodor 1994; Inoue 1991; and many others) that the fundamental principles of language processing are universal, then acceptability judgments for comparable structures of comparable difficulty should be constant across languages, as long as grammatical rules can be independently motivated that would generate the relevant structures as grammatical.

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