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By Heather M Campbell

Starting with the commercial Revolution, Europe used to be seized by means of the spirit of political and social innovation and reform that has persevered into the twenty first century. the final surroundings of the continent, mirrored within the Romantic, Realist, and Modernist pursuits that swept via its international locations, mirrored a becoming consciousness of formerly ignored social realities that demanded motion. This attractive quantity chronicles Europes variations from the overdue 18th century during the current and examines the eu reaction to either prosperity and warfare.

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This view of Europe explains one of the great intellectual forces of the postrevolutionary era—the passion for history. An emotion that may be called cultural populism replaced the devotion to a single horizontal, Europe-wide, and “sophisticated” civilization. These vertical national cultures were “popular” not only in their scope but also in their simplicity. This new outlook, though propagated by the revolution, began as one of those subdued feelings mentioned earlier, as undercurrents beneath Enlightenment doctrine.

Artisans, eager for more political rights, also rose widely against economic hardship and the principles of the new commercial economy. This combination ended the reign of the Bourbon king, producing a new and slightly more liberal monarchy, an expanded middle-class voting system, and some transient protections for freedom of the press. The new regime also cut back the influence of the church. Revolution spread to some German and Italian states and also to Belgium, where after several years an independent nation with a liberal monarchy was proclaimed.

In Rousseau and his abettors, what is preached is the simple life. What nature and the natural really are remains to be found by trial and error—the fit methods and forms of religion, marriage, child rearing, hygiene, and daily work. Populism It is easy to see in these beliefs and sentiments (which often passed into sentimentality) additional materials for the populism that the revolution fostered. Revolution, to begin with, is also an urge to simplify. The revolutionary style was necessarily populist—the influential newspaper of the radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat was called L’Ami du peuple (“The Friend of the People”).

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