By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth version Preface to 3rd variation Preface to moment variation Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists learn? what's a sociolinguist? Why can we say an identical factor in numerous methods? What are the various methods we are saying issues? Social elements, dimensions and reasons part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups identifying your type or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in several groups Language dying and language loss components contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic types and multilingual countries Vernacular languages average languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and reputable languages making plans for a countrywide professional language constructing a customary type in Norway The linguist's function in language making plans part II: Language version: specialise in clients 6. neighborhood and social dialects nearby edition Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech changes: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech positive aspects: social dialect learn Gender and social type causes of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded positive aspects of speech Age and social dialect info Age grading and language switch eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language swap version and alter How do adjustments unfold? How can we research language switch? purposes for language swap part III: Language version: concentrate on makes use of 10. type, context and sign up Addressee as a power on variety lodging idea Context, type and sophistication type in non-Western societies check in eleven. Speech features, politeness and cross-cultural communique The features of speech Politeness and handle kinds Linguistic politeness in numerous cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self belief interplay Gossip The linguistic development of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and belief Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social type, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness idea Ethnography of conversing Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) serious Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and functions Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols thesaurus Index
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Extra info for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Features of the setting and the dimension of formality may also be important in selecting an appropriate variety or code. In church, at a formal ceremony, the appropriate variety will be different from that used afterwards in the church porch. The variety used for a formal radio lecture differs from that used for the adverts. In Paraguay, whether the interaction takes place in a rural as opposed to an urban setting is crucial to appropriate language choice. Other relevant factors relate to the social dimensions of formality and status: Spanish is the appropriate language for formal interactions.
Features relating to participants, setting or function of the interaction). Then we can begin to look for patterns which will help to formulate an explanation of why people use one set of forms in some contexts, but different forms in others. When the two sociolinguists Blom and Gumperz visited Hemnesberget what did they ask? ’ In other words, the sociolinguist’s aim is to move towards a theory which provides a motivated account of the way language is used in a community, and of the choices people make when they use language.
It is possible for two varieties to continue to exist side by side for centuries, as they have in Arabic-speaking countries and in Haiti for example. Alternatively, one variety may gradually displace the other. Latin was ousted from its position as the H language in Europe, for example, as the L varieties gradually expanded or leaked up into more formal domains. England was diglossic (in the broad sense) after 1066 when the Normans were in control. French was the language of the court, administration, the legal system and high society in general.