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By Gary M. Feinman

Some of the most demanding difficulties dealing with modern archaeology is that of explaining the operation and variety of historic states. This quantity addresses the ways that historical states have been established and operated, an knowing of that's key to our skill to interpret a states upward thrust or fall.

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1990; Marcus 1992a:407). Better known than the political cycles within its realm are the cycles of monumental construction at Tikal itself, which indirectly reveal the fortunes of the capital. Chris Jones (1991: 121) has noted that large-scale construction projects were completed at Tikal on the order of every 200 years, and THE PEAKS AND VALLEYS OF ANCIENT STATES 165 that at least three were associated with the burials of rulers. Two of seven projects were related to breaks in the dynastic sequence, and in both cases the former rulers had successors who "took pains to re-establish their connections with the broken dynastic line while also honoring the intruder" (jones 1991: 122).

6). The Chimu were eventually conquered by the Inka, Peru's fourth-generation state, who came to control an empire that stretched 4,000 km from Ecuador to Chile and Argentina (D'Altroy 1992; Hyslop 1984; Morris 1982 and this volume; Morris and Thompson 1985). The Andes is yet another area where the term "city-state" is inappropriate. All the Andean states mentioned above were large and expansionist, and when they did break down into constituent provinces, the latter often took the form of curacazgos-a hybrid Quechua-Spanish term for the territory ruled by a curaca, or native hereditary lord.

A series of fortresses were built at this time, suggesting that we are dealing with a state forged from competing polities, just as happened in Oaxaca (Marcus and Flannery 1996: 155-58), Hawai'i (Service 1975), and among the Zulu of South Africa (Gluckman 1940). Wilson's estimate of the Casma Valley population at this time is greater than 50,000. Casma was one of 14 valleys in a 550 km stretch of the Peruvian coast incorporated by the Moche state (Alva and Donnan 1993; Conklin and Moseley 1988: 151).

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